Rotenone

 
Although the etiology of PD in most of the PD patients has yet to be elucidated, increasing evidence supports ‘multi-hit’- hypothesis encompassing both environmental and genetic factors such as, insecticide exposure and alpha-synuclein exposure, respectively. Rotenone is naturally occurring pesticide and insecticide that is highly lipophilic. It acts through complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain leading to reduced ATP production and electron leakage that can form reactive oxygen species. PD-like phenotypes such as motor behavior changes, nigrostriatal degeneration and alpha-synuclein accumulation.